Halton Arp : Redshift Anomalies

**Halton Arp :** Querying the distance = redshift paradigm.

*From the website :* "We know that the introduction of the notion of force into mechanics was the subject of much criticism. This notion calls for muscular sense, whereas the ideas of space and time are primarily of tactile and visual origin: and the irreducible psychological duality introduced at the very base of this fundamental science leaves a certain discomfort in the mind, justifiably so, for it seems very obvious that the notion eliminates itself in each particular case. Whether we measure the forces by masses and accelerations, or by electric deformations, whether we oppose their effects with those of gravity, etc., what we really observe and measure is always a displacement, or in the absence of a displacement; again, in this latter case, we only end up defining the difference of two forces. In the equations of Mechanics, as applied to any particular example, there remain only the relations of space and time, with certain coefficients properly chosen and invariable which are the masses or other physical constants.

With regard to pure logic, it is therefore with good reason that many experts have rejected the introduction of the notion of forces in the fundamental expressions as being useless. Modern electrodynamics is entirely based on the notion of electric and magnetic forces. If this were absolutely necessary it would be regrettable. But it isn't so: these notions eliminate themselves in the equations, they are logically useless. In the final analysis the theory only expresses the existence of certain relations of time and space, as it is in the case of Mechanics. It will therefore be preferable to express these relations directly; we thus come back to the classical elementary actions."